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Year: 2012



ISBN: 9788175416314(HB)

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ISBN: 9788175416321(PB)

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About the Book

Science can be viewed as an attitude towards life. The acquisition of scientific attitude is one of the most important aims of science teaching and learning. But the extent to which the teaching of science and the learning of the subject is effective in imparting training of skills and acquisition of science processes is in question.
Today, with the emerging trends in science education, processes are given more emphasis, curricula are framed and text books are rewritten with a view to develop science process skills. There is a shift in emphasis from the teaching of science content to that of helping students develop competence in the science process.
The book provides an introduction to the basic concepts of science processes and the process involved in the teaching of science education. Science processes are intellectual skills used in collecting and analysing the data to solve problems. In all modern educational systems, science education is imparted through actual scientific activities - experimentation and organisation of first-hand knowledge obtained through experimentation.
The book may provide mind-altering and practical suggestions for those interested in the field of science education, and for researchers, teacher educators and curriculum developers.

About Author

Dr. K.P. Suresh is the Director, School of Pedagogical Sciences, Kannur University, Kerala. His qualifications include MA (Psychology), MA (Sociology), MA (Political Science), M.Ed and Ph.D in Education. He is member, Board of Studies in Education (PG), Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam and Kannur University. He has got seventeen years of post graduate teaching and research experience. His areas of interest are Research methods, Techniques of evaluation and Test construction and Science education. He has presented research papers in various international and national conferences and seminars. He has written several research papers and chapters in edited books.

Dr. (Sr.) Celene Joseph, Associate Professor is teaching Physical Science at St. Thomas College of Teacher Education, Pala, affiliated to Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, Kerala. Her qualification includes MSc. (Physics), M.Ed and Ph.D. in Education. She has got eighteen years of teaching experience in secondary level teacher education and thirteen years of research experience. Sr. Celene has written several research papers and chapters in books. She has written a book on "Constructivist Approach: Theory and Practice". Sr. Celene's interest includes teacher education, science education, educational research and statistical analysis and tools and test construction.


Preface v

I. Nature of Science
Science as Process or Product
'Science' as Making Sense of the World
Definition of Science
The Nature of Science
Science: A Body of Knowledge
Science: A Method of Inquiry, A Way of Investigation
Scientific Thinking and Critical Thinking
Relationship between Process and Products of Science
Science: An Attitude towards Life, A Way of Thinking
Scientific Literacy
The Role of Science Teacher in Promoting Scientific Literacy

II. Major Curricular Innovations Focused on Science Process
Physical Science Study Committee (PSSC)
Science: A Process Approach (SAPA)
Conceptually Oriented Programme in Elementary Science (COPES)
Minnesota Mathematics and Science Teaching Project (MINNEMAST)
Tennessee Science Curriculum Framework (TSCF)
Tennessee's Four Components of Science Education
Elementary Science Study (ESS)
Elementary-School Science Project (ESSP)
Science Curriculum Improvement Study (SCIS)
Unified Science and Mathematics for Elementary Schools (USMES)
Scientific Thinking (Scottish Education Department Curriculum)
Nuffield Science Curriculum Project
Warwick Science Process
Assessment of Performance Unit (APU)
Science in Process

III. Scientific Method
Scientific Method and its Meaning
Some Elements of Scientific Method
Mill's Canons of Induction
Analysis and Synthesis
Collection of Facts and Data
Scientific Method and Transfer of Training
Application of Scientific Method to the Teaching of Science

IV. Science Process Skills
Emergence of Science as a Process
Significance of Process Skills in Science Teaching
Definition of Process Outcomes
Process vs Product Approach
Science as Problem Solving
Taxonomical Approaches in Defining Educational Objectives
Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives
Gagne's Hierarchy of Learning Types
Nedelsky's Competence: Ability Classification in Science Learning
Classification in Terms of Science Process Skills
The AAAS Classification of Science Process Skills
Klopfer's Classification of Outcomes in Science
Process of Science (Nay, Marshal and others)
Andrew's Classification (1980)
UNESCO Approach Relating to Process Outcomes
Shepardson's Identification of Science Processes
Process Models
Carin and Sund's Model (1970)
Wilson's Model (1974)
Piaget's Model of Intellectual Development (1963)
Hierarchical Nature of Science Process Skills

V. Studies on Process Skills
Research Studies Focussed Focussing on Science Process Skills

VI. Teaching of Science Process Skills
Strategies and Sample Lesson Plans for Developing Science Process Skills
Constructivist Teaching Strategy

Lesson Plans
Lesson Plan Based on Constructivist Approach
Lesson Plan Based on Cognitive Apprenticeship Model
Lesson Plan Based on Cognitive Apprenticeship Model
Lesson Plan Using Concept Attainment Model
Lesson Plan Based on Inquiry Training Model
Lesson Plan Based on 7E Learning Cycle
Lesson Plan Based on Goal Based Scenario Model
Lesson Plan Using Problem Based Learning Strategy

VII. Testing of Science Process Skills
Direct and Indirect Assessment
Techniques for Performance Based Assessment
Science Journals
Inquiry Reports
Investigation Reports
Test of Process Outcomes in Physics
Test of Process Outcomes in Physics


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