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TEACHING OF ENGLISH

TEACHING OF ENGLISH

SKILLS AND METHODS

PARVEEN SHARMA

Year : 2022 impression

Bibliography :

viii+280pp

ISBN : 9788175415959(HB), Price : $50.00 Add To Cart

ISBN : 9788175415966(PB), Price : $11.80Add To Cart

About the Book

With the increasing role of ICT in the changing society, knowledge of English language is becoming more and more important for development in the global family. Not being Mother-tongue, teaching-learning English has always been a challenging task.

Written in a simple, clear, and lucid language, the book describes the role of teachers in developing the linguistic skills among the learners. It highlights the importance of selecting appropriate teaching methods and techniques, and discusses the pedagogical aspects in detail. The book also provides in-depth analysis of remedial English. It has drawn the significance of various Co-curricular activities to learn English in an easy and effective manner.

About Author

Dr. (Mrs) Parveen Sharma, having teaching experience in Education of more than 24 years, is Associate Professor at Hindu College of Education, Sonipat, Haryana. She has contributed numerous papers in reputed journal and edited volumes on Teacher Education, Curriculum Transaction, HIV/AIDS Education, Adolescence and Family Education. She has another book to her credit entitled Shiksha Manovigyan avam Manovegiyanic Prikshan (Shipra, 2010)


Contents


1. NATURE OF LANGUAGE
Concept
Meaning of Language
Nature of Language
Varieties of Language
Points to Remember

2. IMPORTANCE OF LANGUAGE
The History of English Education in India
Importance of English Language
(1) English as a Language of Administration
(2) English as a Language of the Court
(3) English in Social Life
(4) English as a Language of Trade, Commerce and Industry
(5) English as a Link Language
(6) English as a Window on the Modern World
(7) English in Education
(8) English as a Library Language
(9) English as an International Language
(10) English in Communication
Conclusion
Points to Remember

3. FUNCTIONS OF LANGUAGE
1. Expressive Function
2. The Informative Function
3. Communicative Function
4. Directive Function
5. Interaction Function
6. Evolutionary Function
7. Preservation Function
Points to Remember

4. LINGUISTIC PRINCIPLES
1. Correct Language Standards
2. Principle of Selection and Gradation
3. Multiple Line of Approach
4. Structural Approach to Language Teaching
5. Principle of Imitation
6. Principle of Accuracy
7. Principle of Naturalness
8. Maintenance of Interest
9. Principle of Motivation
10. Principle of Habit-formation and Intensive Practice
11. Balanced Approach
Maxims of Teaching
Points to Remember

5. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF TEACHING ENGLISH
(a) Listening/To Understand Spoken English
(b) To Speak English
(c) To Read English
(d) To Write English
Aims of Teaching English at the Junior Level
Aims of Teaching English at the Senior Level
Some other Aims of Teaching English at the Senior Secondary Level
Difference between Aims and Objectives
Objectives of Teaching English
Characteristics of Good Objectives
Objectives at Junior Level
Points to Remember

6. STATING OBJECTIVES IN BEHAVIOURAL TERMS
Characteristics of Behavioural Objectives
Procedure for Writing Behavioural Objectives
Taxonomy of Educational Objectives
Bloom's Taxonomy of Instructional Objectives
Advantages
Procedure for Writing Behavioural Objectives
Taxonomy of Educational Objectives
Interrelationship between Different Domains
Methods of Writing Objectives in Behavioural Terms
Instructional Objectives and Recent Changes
Understanding Education
Relevance of Taxonomy of Objective
Principles for the Statement of Instructional Objectives
Methods of Writing Objectives in Behavioural Terms
4. NCERT Approach
Writing Behavioural Objectives for Teaching English
Prose
Poetry
Instructional Objectives in Behavioural Terms
Composition
Instructional Objectives
Points to Remember

7. TEACHING OF PROSE
Aims of Teaching Prose
What is Involved?
Understanding a Paragraph
Using a Text
How to teach a passage intensively?
Extensive Reading
How to Teach?
Points to Remember

8. TEACHING OF POETRY
Some Thoughts on Poetry
Should Poetry be a Classroom Teaching-Learning Subject?
Arguments Against
Difference between Prose and Poetry
How to Teach Poetry?
FPoints to Remember

9. TEACHING OF COMPOSITION
Aims of Teaching Composition
What is Required?
Types of Composition
Dangers of Starting Free Composition at Early Stages
Stages for Teaching Composition
A. Exercises in Guided/Controlled Composition
I. Skill Exercises
II. Language Exercises
III. Completion and Insertion
IV. Substitution Table
V. Reproduction of Exercises
VI. Mime
B. Exercises in Free composition
Task: Read the Following Description of Vaibhav's School
Correction of Composition
Points to Remember

10. TEACHING OF GRAMMAR
What is Grammar?
Why Study Grammar?
Types of Grammar
Approach to Teaching Grammar
Eclectic Approach
Suggestions for Successful Teaching of Grammar
Points to Remember

11. PEDAGOGICAL ANALYSIS: BASED ON UNIT ANALYSIS
What is a Unit?
Meaning of Unit Approach (Morrison Approach)
How to Plan Unit Method
Limitations of Unit Method
Fixing up Objectives for the Unit
Learning Experiences
Methods of Teaching
Teaching Aids
Evaluation
Scholastic Achievement
Non-Scholastic Achievement
Design of a Question Paper of a Unit Test
Blue Print
Model Pedagogical Lesson Plan Tables
FPoints to Remember

12. MICROTEACHING SKILLS
Meaning of Microteaching
Definitions of Microteaching
Characteristics of Microteaching
Steps in Microteaching
Principles of Microteaching
How many skills?
Questioning Skill
Purpose Behind Questioning
Aims of Questioning
Basic Principles
Explaining Skill
Some Considerations while Explaining
Illustration Skill
Importance of Illustration
Types of Illustrations
Stimulus Variation Skill
Components of Skill of Stimulus Variation
Micro Lesson Plan-I
Criteria of the Skill
Opening Statement
Observation Schedule Rating
Micro Lesson Plan-II
Criteria of the Skill
Opening Statement
Observation Schedule
Micro Lesson Plan-III
Criteria of the Skill
Opening Statement
Observation Schedule
Micro Lesson Plan-IV
Criteria of the Skill
Opening Statement
Observation Schedule
Points to Remember

13. MAJOR METHODS OF TEACHING
Meaning of Method
(a) Translation-cum-Grammar Method
Objectives of Translation Method
Principles of Translation Method
Characteristics of the Method
(b) Direct Method
Process
Essentials of Direct Method
Aim of Direct Method
Principles
(c) Bilingual Method
Principles of Bilingual Method
The Best Method?
Points to Remember

14. APPROACHES OF TEACHING ENGLISH
(A) Structural Approach
Meaning of Structural Approach
What is a Method?
What is an Approach?
What is a Technique?
Description of Structures
Structures are not Sentences
Basic Principles of Structural Approach
Objectives of Structural Approach
Features/Characteristics of Structural Approach
Multi-skill Approach
Selection of Structures
Gradation of Structures
Advantages of Structural Approach
Evaluation of the Structural Approach
(B) Situational Approach
Principles
Procedure
(C) Linguistic and Communicative Approach
'Communicative Competence'-A New Thinking
Theoretical Assumptions
Role of the Learners and Role of the Teacher
Pre-requisites of Linguistic Communicative Approach
Post Communicative Era: Changing Trends
Advantages of Communicative Approach
Conclusion
(D) Project Approach
At Junior Level
At Senior Level
Points to Remember

15. DEVELOPMENT OF LINGUISTIC SKILLS
Development of Linguistic skills
Development of Linguistic Skill of Listening
Listening as Stimulus
Characteristics of an effective oral skills lesson
Listening as input
Advantages of Oral Work
Suggestions for Good Oral Work
Importance of Drill in Listening and Speaking Practice
Types of Drills
(B) Development of Linguistic Skill of Speaking
Objectives of Teaching Speaking Skills
Learners' Activities
Role of the Teacher in a Speaking Class
What is R.P.?
Phonetics
Methods of Teaching English Pronunciation
Teaching Pronunciation
English Sound System
Consonant Sounds
Suggestions for Good Pronunciation
Voiced and Voiceless sounds
Phoneme
Syllable
Stress
Rhythm
Intonation
Types of Intonation
Fluency
Pause
(C) Development of Linguistic Skill of Reading
Reasons for Reading
Meaning of Reading
Mechanics of Reading
Characteristics of Reading
Different Stages in Reading
Methods of Teaching-Reading
Reading Problems
Suggestions for Improvement
(D) Development of the Linguistic Skill of Writing
What is Writing?
Aspects of Writing Skill
Mechanics of Writing
Characteristics of Good Handwriting
Choice of Script
How is Writing Different from Speech?
Creating a Natural Learning Environment for Writing
Process of Writing
2. Writing and Rewriting
Suggestions for Improving Handwriting
Writing Skills
English Spellings
Points to Remember

16. INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL
Importance of Instructional Material and Their Effective Use
Meaning of Audio-Visual Aids
Importance of Teaching Aids
Use of Audio-Visual Aids
Principles in the Use of Audio-Visual Aids
Use of the Following Teaching Aids
Various Types of Teaching Aids
Points to Remember

17. CO-CURRICULAR ACTIVITIES
Co-curricular Activities
Concept
1. Individual Outcomes
2. Social Outcomes
3. Civil and Ethical Outcomes
Importance
The Written Aspect: Wall Paper, Manuscripts and Magazines
1. Communicate Through Speech and Through Writing
Association of English Teachers
Dramatics or Dramatisation
Usefulness of language games
(i) Preparing a Word Dictionary
(ii) Movable Strips
(iii) Miscellaneous Games
Pairing
Write down as many suitable words as you can find to complete each of these phrases:
Expansion of vocabulary through association
Word Chains
Kin's Game
Language Activity
Dialogues Learning
Class Debates
Teacher's Role
Discussion
Teacher's Role
Think-Tank Sessions
Photo Language Session
Process
The Gains
The Picture File
Class Inquiry Office
Original Story Writing
Field Trips
English Club
The School Assembly
The House System
Interpreting
Resource Book for Speaking Activities
Points to Remember


18. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF TESTING ENGLISH
Basic Principles of Testing English, the difference between Measurement and Evaluation
Difference Between Measurement and Evaluation
Test
Examination
Evaluation
Measurement
Evaluation
Difference Between Measurement and Evaluation
Points to Remember


19. COMPREHENSIVE AND CONTINUOUS EVALUATION IN ENGLISH
Meaning of Continuous Evaluation
Characteristics of Continuous Evaluation
Evaluation in English
Observation Technique
Written Technique
Self Evaluation
Peer Evaluation
Record Keeping
Points to Remember


20. DIGITAL PORTFOLIO: USE OF ICT
Use of ICT
Competency
Use of ICT - A Challenge
How Does ICT Help Teachers
Some Examples
Word Processor
Database Management and Spreadsheet Applications
Multimedia Presentation
Using the World Wide Web
Radio
Mobile Communication
Use of Mobile Phones in Education
Against Mobile
Conclusion
Teacher's Role in Technology Integration
What Should Your Multimedia Based Lesson Plan Include?
What is Technology Planning?
Connect Your Classroom to a World of Learning
Framing Questions
How can We Make Learning More Meaningful for the Students?
Students Objectives/Learning Outcomes
Bloom's Taxonomy
Procedures
Prerequisite Skills
Materials and Resources
Student Support Materials
Concept of Scaffolding
FPoints to Remember


21. CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD TEXT BOOK
Importance of English Textbooks
Characteristics of Good Textbook
FPoints to Remember


22. DEVELOPMENT OF GOOD TEST ITEMS IN ENGLISH (OBJECTIVE TYPE, SHORT ANSWER TYPE AND ESSAY TYPE)
Attributes of a Good Test
Characteristics of Good Test in English
Some Details about Questions
Simple Recall
B. Short Answers Type
C. Essay Type Test
Conclusion
Points to Remember


23. REMEDIAL AND ENRICHMENT CONTROL OF AURAL, ORAL, READING AND WRITING SKILLS
Remedial Teaching: Meaning
Objectives of Remedial Work
Who and How Much?
Errors in Reading
Miscues or Decoding Error
Vision Loss
Neurological Problems
Faulty Reading Habits
Errors of Language Learning
Contrastive Analysis and Error Analysis
Types of Faults
Some Major Sources of Errors
Speech Errors
Others
Errors in Writing
Common Mistakes
Remedial English
Organising Remedial Work
FPoints to Remember


24. PREPARATION OF AN ACHIEVEMENT TEST
Types of Achievement Test
Use of Achievement Test
Limitations of Achievement Tests
Preparation of Test
Characteristics of a Good Test in English
Steps of Test Conduction
Suggested Steps for Preparing a Blue Print
Summary
Points to Remember


25. LESSON PLANNING
Need of Lesson Planning
Herbertian Steps of Planning
Three Phases of Planning
Characteristics of a Good Lesson Plan
General Aims
Behavioural Objectives
General Teaching Aids
Previous Knowledge Assumed
Recapitulation
Home Work
General Aims
Behavioural Objectives
General Teaching Aids
Instructional Teaching Aids
General Aims
Behavioural Objectives
General Teaching Aids
Instructional Teaching Aids
Previous Knowledge Assumed
Recapitulation
Homework
General Aims
Behavioural Objectives
General Teaching Aids
Instructional Teaching Aids
Previous Knowledge Assumed
Recapitulation
Homework
General Aims
Behavioural Objectives
General Teaching Aids
Instructional Teaching Aids
Previous Knowledge Assumed
Another Pattern of Lession Plans
General Objectives
Specific Objectives
Teaching Aids
Previous Knowledge
General Objectives
Specific Objectives
Teaching Aids
General Objectives
Specific Objectives
Teaching Aids
General Objectives
Specific Objectives
Teaching Aids
Sample of Achievement Tests
GLOSSARY
BIBLIOGRAPHY
REVISION QUESTIONS
 

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