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Year: 2021


pp. 293

ISBN: 9789388691604(HB)

Price: Rs.2,250

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ISBN: 9789388691611

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About the Book

The book gives a panoramic view of Indian Education in the post-independence period taking cognizance of certain developments of the pre-independence era.  Besides giving progress and perspectives of the various sectors of education, it also discusses some of the developments that have impacted Indian education. It also examines the rationale of some schemes that were initially considered to be the raison d’etre of reform in Indian education but were subsequently allowed to fade out. The volume also includes RTE, financing of higher education and teacher education through distance mode and new Education Policy. Further, it examines NITI Aayog and Planning Commission’s role in education, the impact of globalisation on educational development; criteria based funding of education; education under a democratic set-up as also the role of education in promoting international understanding. In fact, the present situation of Indian Education has been built upon the edifice of the position in the past. The book would be found useful by all the stakeholders in education.

About Author

Professor Jagdish Lal Azad (b. 1920) retired as Chief of Education Division, Planning Commission, with which he was associated for more than two decades. Thereafter, he worked as (Visiting) Professor of Economics of Education at various universities. He was also Senior Fellow (ICSSR) at NIEPA, as also Honorary Director of Planning Commission sponsored Research Projects at the JNU, New Delhi. He was also a Fellow at the University of York (England).

Prof. Azad has been closely associated with the academic programmes of bodies like UGC, NIEPA, NCERT and NCTE. He was also Chairman/Member of a number of Committees/Study Groups. He has written extensively on problems of Indian Education. His published works include 15 research-based studies, a large number of articles and reports brought out by national and international Journals as also fellow academicians/ researchers in their publications.


A Prayer

Foreword by Prof. G.D. Sharma ix




Section 1

Agenda for Education in the Twenty First Century


1. School Education and Right to Education

Life Long Learning; Policy Framework; Progress of Education; Needed Reforms; Mental Hygiene of the Child; Meaning of Mental Hygiene; Its Neglect; Child’s Needs; Need for Security; Need for Adventure; A Few Suggestions; The Problem of Sex; Educational Backwardness Among Children; Distribution of Intelligence; Responsibility of the Teacher; Responsibility of the Parents; Right to Education Act 2009–10; Some Observations; No Detention Policy; Arguments against No Detention Policy; Conclusion


2. Higher Education: Progress and Perspectives 26

Quantitative Dimensions; Declining Growth Rates; Static Enrolment at the Post-graduate and Research Stages; Women Rising Proportionate Enrolment; Scheduled Castes Enrolment; Quality of Higher Education; Employment Potential of Higher Education; Restructuring University Level Courses; New Economic Policy 1991; Restructuring of Courses; Skill Development Courses; Role of Industrial and Commercial Houses; Conclusion


3. Changing Complexion of Higher Education

Impact of Emerging Socio-economic Dispensations on Higher Education; Implications for Education; Alternative Strategies; International Scenario; Implications of Privatisation; Marketisation of Education; The Way Out; Need for Autonomy; xiv Indian Education Since Independence Quality and Excellence in Higher Education; Management of Higher Education; Autonomy of Universities; Checks and Balances; Power of Purse; Not Isolation; Academic Freedom; Choice of Chancellors


Section 2


Educational Finance


4. Financing of Education in India

Significant Trends in Overall Educational Finance; Role of Centre and States in Educational Investment; Emerging Problems of Educational Finance; Resource Mobilisation – Need for and Modalities of; Conclusion


5. Financing of Secondary Education 75 Behaviour of Educational Finance—All India; School Education; Plan Outlays; Problems of Educational Finance; Rising Expenditure on Staff Salaries; Resource Mobilisation; Conclusion


6. Financing of Higher Education in India: Resource Mobilisation

Behaviour of Higher Education Finance – Overall Expenditure; Emerging Problems of University Finances; The New Education Policy 1986 (Review 1992); Resources Mobilisation; Institutional Proliferation; Academic Accountability; Conclusion; Privatise .... and Perish (?); The Resource Crunch; The Way Out; Redesigning of Economic Policies; Implications for Education; Alternative Strategies


7. Criteria Based Funding of Higher Education

Funding Mechanisms; British Experience; Modalities of Input Funding; Types of Costs; Some Problem Areas; Input Funding System based on Unit Costs


8. Financing of Higher Education: India and Great Britain — A Comparative Study

Indian and British Systems; University Development: Problems and Perspectives; Magnitudes of Financial Inputs; India and Britain; Educational Expenditure as a Proportion of GDP; Source of Finance; Relative Position of the Universities under Study; Financial Management; Funding Bodies; India; Britain; General Reactions to the New System; Some Significant Problems; Financial Support for Students; Precautions to be Taken by the Developing Countries; Student Fees; Mobilising Resources; Policy Implications; Resources Constraints; Financial Management


9. Researches in Educational Finance: Past, Present and Future

Brief Review; Equity-Efficiency Nexus; Efficiency in Education; Socio-Economic Status of Students; Financial Management; An Appraisal; The Future; Conclusion


Section 3

All About Teachers and Teacher Education


10. Mental Adjustment of an Indian Teacher Degree of Adjustment; Causes of Maladjustment; Conclusion


11. Professional Commitments and Accountability of Teachers

Foremost Problems; Role of Teacher; Teacher’s Commitment; Professional Accountability; Enhancing Teachers’ Accountability; Measuring Teachers Accountability; Role of Teacher’s Organisation; An Unforgettable Teacher


12. Teacher Education through Correspondence

Suggestions; Conclusion


13. Teacher Education through Distance Mode: A Comparative

Study of Financing of the Programme under Conventional and Distance Mode

Concept of Distance Education; Distance Teacher Education; Rationale for Teacher Education through Distance Mode; Expenditure on Teacher Education; Comparative Costs Effectiveness; Cost Analysis of Teacher Education through Distance Mode; Thus Spoke the Students; Main Conclusions and Recommendations


Section 4

Game Changers in Educational System


14. Globalisation and its Impact on Indian Education

Impact of Reforms; Impact of Globalisation on Education; Content of Education; Equity, Excellence Syndrome; Internationalisation of Education; Finance Related Reforms; Conclusion


15. NITI Aayog: Replacing the Planning Commission

Planning Commission: Role in Educational Development; Historical Perspective; Concept of Educational Planning; Machinery of Educational Planning; Planning Commission: Joint Responsibility Concept; Educational Management; NITI Aayog; Parameters of Effective Governance; Composition of the Aayog; Modus Operandi; Strategy of Development


16. Education in a Democracy: A Conceptual Framework

Education under Totalitarianism; Education under Democracy; Democracy and the Educator; Democracy and the Educand; Indian Conditions


Section 5


Missed Opportunities in the Educational System

(Lest We Forget)


17. Ravages of the Retrenchment Committee: Pre-Independence Period

Abolition of the Central Advisory Board of Education (CABE); Closing Down of the Delhi University


18. Basic Education: Post-Independence Period

The Demise of an Ideology; Gandhiji’s Educational Philosophy; Two Components; Gandhian Educational Philosophy Takes a Concrete Shape; The Virtual Abandonments of the Scheme


19. Multi-Purpose Schools

Need of Multipurpose Schools; Main Features of Multipurpose Schools 


20. The Oases and the Desert: Major Universities – The Still

Born Proposal of the Education Commission (1964–66) Appendices: And the Life Goes On…. Some Interesting Events; A Personal Note  

Post Script: National Policy on Education (NEP) 2020 268


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