Evaluation or Assessment of Learning is referred to as the controlling key of an entire teaching-learning process carried out in the schools. This book is intended to acquaint the teachers properly with all essentials about their task of carrying out from time to time the evaluation or assessment of the learning or performance of their students.
Beginning with throwing light on the concept of testing, measurement, assessment and evaluation, the book discusses all essentials about tools and techniques of evaluation, statistical methods and interpretation of scores as well as the emerging trends in the field of evaluation. The book is ideal for the content courses entitled as ‘Assessment of Learning’, ‘Assessment for Learning’ ‘Measurement and Evaluation’ of the Indian universities and teacher education institutions.
Prof. S.K. Mangal (Ph.D. Education), former Principal, and Head of the Department of Postgraduate Studies, C.R. College of Education, Rohtak, Haryana, is a distinguished teacher, researcher and administrator who has devised several psychological tools including the Emotional Intelligence Inventory.
Professor Mangal is a prolific writer and has number of outstanding books in Education to his credit. His books are very popular among students and researchers. He has also published extensively in reputed journals.
Prof. Shubhra Mangal (Ph.D. Education) is the Principal, and Head of the Department of Postgraduate Studies, C.R.S. College of Education, Noida.
She has devised an Emotional Intelligence Inventory for the measurement of Emotional Intelligence of School Teachers. She has written a number of books in the field of Education, Psychology and Teacher Education. The areas of her research interest are Emotional Intelligence and Teacher Education.
1. Measurement, Assessment, Evaluation and Evaluation Approaches
Concept of Test, Measurement and Evaluation
How Evaluation Differs from Measurement?
Concept of Examinations
Distinction between Examination and Evaluation
Concept of Assessment
Distinction between Assessment of Learning and Assessment for Learning
Needs and Objectives of Assessment or Evaluation
Scope or Functions of Assessment or Evaluation
Evaluation or Assessment Approaches
2. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation (CCE)
What is Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation or CCE?
The Need and Importance of CCE
How to Carry on with the System of CCE
Problems faced by teachers in the implementation of CCE
3. Tools and Technique of Evaluation
Characteristics of a Good Measuring Instrument or Tool of Evaluation
Establishing Reliability and Validity of the Test or Tools
Tools of Evaluation — Qualitative and Quantitative
Quantitative Evaluation Tools — Types and Description
– Oral Tests and Examination
– Practical Tests or Examinations
– Written Tests or Examinations
Planning and Preparation of an Achievement Test (Including Blue Print)
Qualitative Evaluative Tools: Types and Description
– Observation as a Tool for Qualitative Assessment
– Introspection as a Tool for Qualitative Assessment
– Projective Techniques as a Tool for Qualitative Evaluation
– Sociometry as a Tool for Qualitative Evaluation
Use of Evaluation Tools for Internal Assessment and Maintaining Cumulative Records
4. Statistics in Educational Evaluation
Meaning of Statistics
Need and Importance of Statistics in Educational Evaluation
5. Organisation and Graphical Presentation of Data
The Meaning of Term Data
Methods of Organising and Presenting Data
– Statistical Tables
– Frequency Distribution
– Graphical Representation of Ungrouped Data
– Pictographs or Pictograms.
– Bar Graphs or Bar Diagrams
– Circle Graph or Pie Diagrams.
– Line Graphs
– Graphical Presentation of Frequency Distribution (Grouped Data)
– Frequency Polygon
– Cumulative Frequency Curve or Graph
– Cumulative Percentage Frequency Curve or Ogive
6. Measures of Central Tendency, Percentiles and Percentile Rank
Arithmetic Mean (M)
– Computation of Mean in the Case of Ungrouped Data
– Computation of Mean in the Case of Grouped Data
Computation in the Case of Ungrouped Data.
Computation of Median in case of Grouped Data
– Computation of Mode: In the case of Ungrouped Data
– Computaton of Mode: In the case of Grouped Data
Percentiles and Percentile Ranks—Computation
7. Measures of Variability or Dispersion
Need of the Measures of Variability or Dispersion
Different Measures of Variability or Dispersion
Quartile Deviation (Q)
Average Deviation (AD)
– Computation of Average Deviation (AD) from Ungrouped Data
– Computation of Average Deviation from Grouped Data
Standard Deviation (SD)
– Computation of Standard Deviation (SD) from Ungrouped Data
– Computation of Standard Deviation from Grouped Data
– Computation of Standard Deviation from Grouped Data by Short-cut Method
Coefficient of Correlation
Computation of Coefficient of Correlation
– Rank Difference Method
– Product Moment Method
9. Normal Probability Curve (NPC)
What is Normal Distribution and Normal Probability Curve?
Characteristics and Properties of a Normal Curve
An Illustration of Concept of Normal Distribution and Curve
Uses and Application of Normal Probability Curve (NPC)
Skewness and Kurtosis
10. New Trends in Evaluation
Choice-based Credit System (CBCS)
Computer Based On-Line Examination
Open Book Examinations
On Demand Examination in Distance Education Mode of IGNOU
References and Suggested Readings