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Year: 2015



ISBN: 9788175418103(HB)

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ISBN: 9788175418110(PB)

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About the Book

Distance Education is a great educational innovation of modern period. It created enormous opportunities for the expansion of educational opportunities particularly at the higher education level.

Distance education holds key to an educational revolution that will see access expanded, quality enhanced and cost reduced. Distance education has been playing several key roles in a modern education system. Distance education has been growing fast, in marvelously diverse fashion, around the world. Yet, many students, teachers and adults are not familiar with the dynamics of distance education. This book serves the purpose of familiarizing such students, teachers and adult learners with the origin and spread of distance education: When it began? Where it began? And how it began? Theories and Models of distance education, types and structures of distance education institutions, distance courses are also described in this book. It benefits all those who wish to know what, why and how of distance education and like to be benefitted by the newly emerging technology enabled education.

About Author

Dr. P. Satyanarayana worked as a Consultant to Educational Consultants India Limited for IGNOU Establishment Project. He was also associated with preparation of the Feasibility Study of COL. As the first Regional Director of IGNOU he set up varied learner support services in different parts of the country. His works include Open and Distance Education Research, Distance Education: Practices and Perspectives, Indian Open University System etc. He widely travelled and participated in several national and international seminars and workshops. He contributed to several distance education journals.


Dr. C. Sesharatnam was a Joint Director at Dr. B.R. Ambedkar Open University. She prepared course material, set up learner support centers and organized staff training programmes. She travelled widely and attended world conferences organized by ICDE, AAIOU and ACSDE. Her works include Distance Education in USA, Distance Education Research: Indian Contributions and Women in Distance Education.


Dr. Emmanuel DK Meduri is Professor of Management at TKR Engineering College, Hyderabad. He represents Global Universities in Distance Education, Rome in India. He specialized in Management of ICT in Distance Education. He participated in several national and international conferences. His works include E-Learning Wave in India, Technology Mediated Distance Education etc. 



     1.   Distance Education: Origin and Development                               

Concept of Distance Education/1; Comparison with Face-to-Face (Conventional) Education/2; Development of Distance Education/3; Definition of Distance Education/11; A Comprehensive Definition of Distance Education/13; Terminological Variety/13; Components of Distance Education System/19; Support to Distance Education/20; Use of Distance Education/20

     2.   Theoretical Basis of Distance Education                                         

Theories of Autonomy and Independence/23; Theory of Industrialization/26; Theories of Interaction and Communication/27; A Synthesis of Existing Theories-Hilary Perraton/32

     3.   Models of Distance Education                                                            

The Systems Model of Distance Education/36; The Holistic Model of Distance Education/37; The Transactional Model of Distance Education/37

     4.   Distance Education Policies                                                                

     5.   Classification of Distance Education Institutions                          

Classification of Distance Teaching Institutions by Otto Peters, El-Bushra, Neil, Keegan and Rumble/44; Types of Distance Education Institutions/47; Advantages of Autonomous Distance Teaching Universities (DTUs)/47

     6.   Distance Teaching Universities                                                          

History/51; Establishment of UK Open University/52; Why Distance Teaching Universities?/54; Aims and Objectives of Some Distance Teaching Universities/55

     7.   Organizational Structure of Distance Education Systems          

     8.   Distance Education Programmes                                                      

Considerations for Distance Education Programmes/68; Types of Distance Education Programmes/68; Achieving Success from Distance Programmes/70; Preparation of Distance Courses/71; Models of Course Development/72; Course Maintenance and Renewal/76; Evaluation of Distance Education Programmes/76

     9.   Distance Students                                                                                    

Kinds of Drop Outs/81; Drop Outs in Some Distance Systems/81; Why Drop Out?/82; Types of Drop Outs in UK Open University/83; Contributory Factors for Drop Out/84; Extra Curricular Concerns/87; Courses Concerns/87

  10.   Instructional System in Distance Education                                    

Instructional Systems of some Distance Teaching Universities/90

  11.   Self Instructional Material                                                                  

Conventional Class Room Teaching/94; Nature of SIM/95; Functions of SIM/95; Special Features of SIM/96; Learning Activeness/97; Developing Self Instructional Material/98; Main Body of the Unit/101; Evaluation of Self Instructional Material/105; Review of Self Instructional Material/106

  12.   Student Assignments

Importance of Assignments/107; Functions and Purposes of Assignment/108; Types of Assignments/109; Preparing Assignments/109; Ways in which Tutors Teach through their Written Comments on Assignments/110; Types of Tutor Comments/111; Assignment Turn Around Time/111; Students’ Perspective of Correspondence Tuition/112; Monitoring of Assignments/113; Nature of Monitoring Comments/114

  13.   Student Support Services

Problems of Distance Learners/116; Composition of Student Support Services/118; British Open University Model of Student Support/119; Should Support Services be Mandatory for Students?/120; Information Support/120; Guidance Support/121; Tutorial Support/122; Counselling Support/124; Library Support/125; Students as a Supporting Service/127; Regional Centres and Study Centres/128; Student Support Charter/130

  14.   Staff Development

Need for Staff Development/132; Changing Roles of Distance Education Personnel/134; Categories of Staff in Distance Systems/134; Tasks and Training Needs of Staff/134; Skills Required by Staff/139; Strategies for Staff Development/140; Pre-Service Face to Face and Distance Education/Training Programmes on Distance Education/142; Causes of Failure of Staff Development/143; Evaluating Staff Development/143

  15.   Technologies for Distance Education

Upto 1980: Types of Technologies/145; From 1980: Types of Technologies/146; Media and Technology/146; Generations of Distance Education/147; Models of Delivery/147; Distance Teaching Institutions use Variety of Technology/148; Audio and Video Technologies/149; Selection of Technology/161; Selection of Valid Media Mix/162; Criteria for the Use of Technology/162; Twelve Golden Rules of Use of Technology/162

  16.   Quality Assurance in Distance Education

Quality Assurance Considerations/165; Criteria to Assist Quality Assurance Efforts/166; Accreditation/167; Quality as a Culture/168

  17.   Accreditation of Distance Education

Institutional Accreditation/171

  18.   Leadership in Distance Education

Leadership Styles in Asian Open Universities/174; Characteristics which Undermine Leadership/175; Emerging Distance Education Leaders/176

  19.   Evaluating Distance Education Systems

Gooler’s Criteria/179; Four Point Criteria of Keegan and Rumble/180; Other Criteria/181; Performance Indicators/182

  20.   Distance Education Research

COL’s Policy on Research/189; Separate Centres for Promotion of Research/190; Subjects for Research/191

  21.   Some Developments and Trends

Globalisation of Distance Education/193; Mobile Learning (M-Learning)/195; Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCS)/199; Open Educational Resources (OER)/201

Annexure: Organizations, Associations and Journals of Distance Education



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