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Year: 2023 impression


x + 234 pp, First Published in 2011

ISBN: 9788175418912(HB)

Price: Rs.1,400

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ISBN: 9788175418929(PB)

Price: Rs.450

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About the Book

Research in Education, as in other fields, is a research for knowledge. Knowledge of research methodology is essential for all those who either take an active role in the conduct of research or desire to keep themselves abreast of the new developments in education.

The book is directed to students taking a first course in educational research, typically given at the Masters' level as well as doctoral level. This will also help students faced with the necessity to complete a research project or paper without adequate training in research. Educators having the responsibility to evaluate programmes and study problems through research approach may be benefited by this book.

About Author

Dr. C. Naseema, M.Sc., M.Ed., Ph.D.(Edn.), DDE., PGDHE., PGDCA, with more than seventeen years of teaching experience, is the Professor and Dean, Faculty of Education, University of Calicut. She has completed four major research projects aided by UGC, IIPA and SSA. She has visited Sweden, Zambia and Bangkok in connection with her project work on Child rights sponsored by SIDA, Sweden. Prof. Naseema has authored five books and has contributed papers to number of books and published/ presented many papers in journals of repute and conferences.

V. K. Jibin, M.A., M.Ed. is associated with the Department of Education, University of Calicut. He has published papers in Education in National and International journals and also presented papers in conferences.


Preface v


I. Nature of Research, Knowledge and Enquiry

1.1 The Rise of Research in Education
1.2 What Constitutes Research?
1.3 Classification of Educational Research
1.4 Paradigms in Research
1.4.1 Positivism
1.4.2 Characteristics of Positivism
1.4.3 Positivism and Construction
1.4.4 Phenomenology
1.5 Scientific Method

II. Problem and its Sources

2.1 Selection of Problem
2.1.1 Sources for Identification of Problems
2.2 Criteria for Selecting Problem
2.3 Survey of Related Literature

III. Hypotheses

3.1 Hypothesis: A Starting Point
3.2 Purposes Served by Hypothesis
3.3 Characteristics of Good Hypothesis
3.4 Different Ways of Stating a Hypothesis

IV. Sampling

4.1 Reasons for Sampling
4.2 Principles of Sampling
4.3 Stages of Sampling
4.4 Methods of Sampling
4.4.1 Random Sampling
4.4.2 Stratified Sampling
4.4.3 Proportionate Stratified Random Sampling
4.4.4 Cluster Sampling
4.4.5 Incidental Sampling
4.4.6 Purposive Sampling
4.4.7 Systematic Sampling
4.4.8 Multi-Stage Sampling
4.4.9 Quota Sampling
4.4.10 Snowball Sampling
4.5 Sample Size

V. Tools and Techniques of Research

5.1 Questionnaire
5.2 Schedule
5.3 Checklist
5.4 Rating Scale
5.5 Score Card
5.6 Opinionnaire or Attitude Scale
5.6.1 Thurston's Technique
5.6.2 Likert Attitude Scale
5.6.3 Guidelines for Writing Attitude Statement (Ebel. 1989)
5.7 Sociometry
5.8 Criteria for a Good Measuring Tool
5.9 Observation
5.10 Interview

VI. Methods of Research
6.1 Variables
6.2 Experimental Research
6.3 Historical Research
6.4 Survey
6.5 Case Study
6.6 The Normative Survey Method
6.7 Content Analysis or Documentation Analysis
6.8 Correlation Method
6.9 Ethnography and Education
6.10 Action Research
6.11 Ex Post Facto Research
6.12 Phenomenology
6.13 Grounded Theory
6.14 Evaluation Research

VII. Qualitative and Quantitative Techniques

7.1 Qualitative and Quantitative Techniques
7.2 Objectivity in Qualitative Research
7.3 The Internet as an Object of Research
7.3.1 Preconditions of Qualitative Online Research
7.3.2 Transferring Qualitative Research and Methods to the Internet
7.3.3 Ways of Using Computers in Qualitative Research
7.3.4 Types of Software for Analyzing Qualitative Data

VIII. Research Reporting

8.1 Format of the Research Report

IX. Ethics in Social Research

9.1 Professional Practice and Ethical Standards


X. Statistics

10.1 What is Statistics?
10.2 Scales of Measurement
10.3 Frequency Distribution
10.4 Measures of Central Tendency
10.5 Measures of Dispersion
10.6 Percentile Ranks
10.7 Skewness
10.8 Kurtosis
10.9 Standard Scores
10.10 Normal Distribution
10.11 Degrees of Freedom
10.12 Correlation and Regression

XI. Inferential Statistics

11.1 Sampling
11.2 Method of Sampling
11.3 Sampling Distribution
11.4 Application of the Concept of Standard Error
11.5 Tests of Significance of Difference between Statistics
11.6 Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)
11.7 Chi-square (?2) Test
11.8. SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences)


I: Standard Normal (Z) Table
II: Student's t Table
III: Right tail areas for the Chi-square Distribution
IV: F Distribution Critical Values
V: F Distribution critical values for P = 0.05
VI: Conversion of Pearson's r to Fischer's z

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